Lectures on Art Criticism - Fourth Stage, prepared by Assistant Professor Farid Khaled Alwan
definition of art criticism
The word (criticism) goes back to Greek origins, and it was previously used in three different fields since that time period, the first in the field of justice through the idea of (judging a thing) and (separation) meaning deciding on an adversarial matter. From then on, the term criticism was used in the field of medicine, when it was adopted as an indicator of the critical moment that the patient goes through, i.e. the critical moment of pathological transformation. Finally, in the Hellenistic era, the term (criticism) was adopted for the purpose of studying literary texts. Thus, this word came to us across three scientific fields and has a specific meaning in each of them: (legal_medical_linguistic). Until the European Renaissance, the use of the word (critic) remained within the field of medicine and language. After that, this term continued to be used within the field of language and grammatical studies, until it was clearly associated with it, so that the word then refers to the study of literary productions in its various branches (story, poetry...etc).
Lectures on the history of the art of civilizations, prepared by the teacher, Dr. Asmaa Samir Halim
Introduction to the history of civilizations:
Culture is a term derived from the Latin Cultura from the verb Colere meaning to plow or to grow, and its Latin connotation in past times was limited to the development of the land and its crops. The word culatura in this absolute sense indicates the development of the mind and taste. This word was transferred to German from the French in the late eighteenth century in the form of “culture” and then “Kultur” and its last meaning remained, i.e. mental and moral development. In the Arabic language, the word is derived from the verb attended, and it is said that civilization is villages, countryside, and inhabited houses. Methods that do not link them to a specific geographical spot, such as: fishing. Modern industrial society is considered a form of civilization, in other words, it means stability. Franz Boas defines it as the integrated whole of mental and natural actions and activities that characterize the collective behavior of individuals and those related to each other in the social environment. Therefore, most interpretations agree that civilization is linked to progress, growth, organization and culture, and this makes civilization a product of existence and social relations. The turmoil and anxiety are over